Denoising Diffusion via Image-Based Rendering

1 University of Edinburgh    2 Google    3 TU Munich    4 University of Glasgow


Generating and reconstructing 3D scenes is a challenging open problem, which requires synthesizing plausible content that is fully consistent in 3D space. While recent methods such as neural radiance fields excel at view synthesis and 3D reconstruction, they cannot synthesize plausible details in unobserved regions since they lack a generative capability. Conversely, existing generative methods are typically not capable of reconstructing detailed, large-scale scenes in the wild, as they use limited-capacity 3D scene representations, require aligned camera poses, or rely on additional regularizers. In this work, we introduce the first diffusion model able to perform fast, detailed reconstruction and generation of real-world 3D scenes. To achieve this, we make three contributions. First, we introduce a new neural scene representation, IB-planes, that can efficiently and accurately represent large 3D scenes, dynamically allocating more capacity as needed to capture details visible in each image. Second, we propose a denoising-diffusion framework to learn a prior over this novel 3D scene representation, using only 2D images without the need for any additional supervision signal such as masks or depths. This supports 3D reconstruction and generation in a unified architecture. Third, we develop a principled approach to avoid trivial 3D solutions when integrating the image-based representation with the diffusion model, by dropping out representations of some images. We evaluate the model on several challenging datasets of real and synthetic images, and demonstrate superior results on generation, novel view synthesis and 3D reconstruction.

3D reconstruction from a single frame

Here we give our model GIBR a single image as input. GIBR accurately predicts the depths of the visible part of the scene, but also synthesises plausible details in hidden regions. Top: MVImgNet chairs. Bottom: CO3D hydrants. These videos were not seen during training.

3D reconstruction from six input frames

Here we give GIBR six images as input. GIBR faithfully reconstructs the details visible in all images, predicting realistsic depth-maps and images with fine detail. Top: MVImgNet chairs. Bottom: CO3D hydrants. These videos were not seen during training.

How it works

Our neural scene representation IB-planes defines 3D content using image-space features. Each camera $\pi_v$ is associated with a feature-map $\mathbf{f}_v$ (blue); together both parametrise a neural field that defines density and color for each 3D point $p$ (red dot). This can be converted to an image using standard NeRF ray-marching.

We incorporate this representation in a diffusion model over multi-view images. At each denoising step, noisy images $\mathbf{x}^{(t)}$ are encoded by a U-Net $E$ with cross-view attention (gray dashed arrows), that yields pixel-aligned features $\mathbf{f}_v$ (blue). To render pixels of denoised images (only one $\mathbf{x}^{(0)}$ is shown for clarity), we use volumetric ray-marching (green arrow), decoding features unprojected (red lines) from the other viewpoints.

For 3D reconstruction, we replace one or more of the noisy images with noise-free input images and perform conditional generation. The noise in the other images encodes the content of regions that are not visible in the input images, ensuring all parts of the scene are coherent and contain plausible details.

IB-planes scene representation


Quantitative results on 3D reconstruction

We compare GIBR with several state-of-the-art methods for 3D reconstruction from one or few images. We measure performance using pixel reconstruction metrics on held-out images. Metrics suffixed D are calculated directly on the denoised images, while metrics suffixed H use renderings from other viewpoints. Bold numbers are the best.

Comparison with other methods on 3D reconstruction

Quantitative results on generation

We compare GIBR with two other methods that generate 3D scenes via 3D-aware image diffusion. GIBR outperforms these baselines according to Frechet Inception distance, on both the denoised images (suffix D) and renderings from other viewpoints (suffix H).

Comparison with other methods on generation


    title={Denoising Diffusion via Image-Based Rendering},
    author={Titas Anciukevi{\v{c}}ius and Fabian Manhardt and Federico Tombari and Paul Henderson},
    booktitle={The Twelfth International Conference on Learning Representations},